Information from the Nurses' Health Study indicated that the combination of estrogen and androgen used to treat hypoandrogenism could increase breast cancer risk. However, other studies indicated androgens may decrease breast cancer risk. Follow-up studies on the Women's Health Initiative found women who received estrogen and no progestogen showed a significant decrease in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and breast cancer. This has caused a reconsideration of androgens added to estrogens. Still, the FDA requires demonstration of CVD and breast cancer safety for any product containing androgens or estrogen plus an androgen; that has not been done.
Men undergoing ADT, especially those with existing heart problems, may have a higher risk of death instead of finding a cure. A number of studies have been made researching the relationship between prostate cancer and the heart. Results have varied. However, after a panel review from the American Heart Association, one thing was conclusive: men who choose ADT as a prostate cancer treatment must keep their blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar at a very minimal level. Otherwise, choosing this type of hormone therapy may lessen their chances of survival.
Erectile dysfunction is not uncommon after radical prostatectomy and men who undergo ADT in addition to this are likely to show further decline in their ability to engage in penetrative intercourse, as well as their desire to do so.  A study looking at the differences of using GnRH-A (and androgen suppressant) or an orchiectomy report differences in sexual interest, the experience of erections, and the prevalence of participating in sexual activity. Men reporting no sexual interest increased from % to % after orchiectomy, and from % to % after GnRH-A; men who experienced no erections increased from % to %; and men who did not report engaging in sexual activity increased from % to % after orchiectomy and % to %.  This study suggests that the GnRH-A and orchiectomy had similar effects on sexual functioning. A vicious cycle whereby lowering testosterone levels leads to decreased sexual activity, which in turn cause both free and total testosterone levels to decline even further.  This demonstrates the importance of androgens for maintaining sexual structures and functions.