Decreased testosterone

Testosterone is a sex hormone; It is naturally produced in both men and women but is made at a much higher level in men. Low testosterone is not just about libido or becoming stronger and bigger in the gym. While this can be an effect of treatment, the condition known as Low T is much more in-depth. It is what gives a male the secondary sex characteristics of a man. Testosterone – which can profoundly reduce energy levels – is responsible for stimulating muscle growth, achieving normal erectile and cognitive functions, restore energy levels and maintaining normal bone density.

It is suggested that bioavailable testosterone represents the fraction of circulating testosterone that readily enters cells and better reflects the bioactivity of testosterone than does the simple measurement of serum total testosterone. Also, varying levels of SHBG can result in inaccurate measurements of bioavailable testosterone. Decreased SHBG levels can be seen in obesity, hypothyroidism , androgen use, and nephritic syndrome (a form of kidney disease ). Increased levels are seen in cirrhosis , hyperthyroidism , and estrogen use. In these situations, measurement of free testosterone may be more useful.

The American Medical Association has estimated that several million US women suffer from a female sexual arousal disorder , though arousal is not at all synonymous with desire, so this finding is of limited relevance to the discussion of libido. [31] Some specialists claim that women may experience low libido due to some hormonal abnormalities such as lack of luteinising hormone or androgenic hormones, although these theories are still controversial. Also, women commonly lack sexual desire in the period immediately after giving birth . Moreover, any condition affecting the genital area can make women reject the idea of having intercourse . It has been estimated that half of women experience different health problems in the area of the vagina and vulva , such as thinning, tightening, dryness or atrophy . Frustration may appear as a result of these issues and because many of them lead to painful sexual intercourse, many women prefer not having sex at all. Surgery or major health conditions such as arthritis , cancer , diabetes , high blood pressure , coronary artery disease or infertility may have the same effect in women. [3] Surgery that affects the hormonal levels in women include oophrectomies .

The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) questionnaire was used to evaluate participants regarding the presence of depressive symptoms [ 27 ]. The BDI-II is a 21-question multiple-choice self-reported psychometric test, and each of its questions is scored using a scale ranging from 0 (minimum) to 3 (maximum). A total score ≤ 10 is considered normal, and the BDI-II is strongly correlated with other validated psychometric tests used in primary care settings [ 28 ]. Question number 21 of the BDI-II was used to assess libido among the participants and we considered a score < 1 normal. Erectile function was evaluated using the five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire [ 29 ]. The questionnaire is highly validated and consists of five questions scored using a scale ranging from 1 to 5. A total score ≥ 22 indicates normal erectile function. The Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire was used to assess ‘energy/fatigue’. Lower scores were suggestive of more pronounced fatigue symptoms [ 30 ].

The actual cause of depression is not yet clear. However, doctors and scientists believe that it is a result of an imbalance in the chemicals signaling the brain. Studies are ongoing to identify the imbalance and the signaling chemicals. Various illnesses and some adverse life situations may spark depression. However, a majority of men with lower testosterone levels also exhibits depression signs. Most of them are obese or overweight. It points out the relation between depression and body fat. Average testosterone levels may reverse the situation for men.

Decreased testosterone

decreased testosterone

The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) questionnaire was used to evaluate participants regarding the presence of depressive symptoms [ 27 ]. The BDI-II is a 21-question multiple-choice self-reported psychometric test, and each of its questions is scored using a scale ranging from 0 (minimum) to 3 (maximum). A total score ≤ 10 is considered normal, and the BDI-II is strongly correlated with other validated psychometric tests used in primary care settings [ 28 ]. Question number 21 of the BDI-II was used to assess libido among the participants and we considered a score < 1 normal. Erectile function was evaluated using the five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire [ 29 ]. The questionnaire is highly validated and consists of five questions scored using a scale ranging from 1 to 5. A total score ≥ 22 indicates normal erectile function. The Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire was used to assess ‘energy/fatigue’. Lower scores were suggestive of more pronounced fatigue symptoms [ 30 ].

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